11. Indigenous Inclusion in Employment

Robline Davey


Depending on your context, you may discover that you are already familiar with the information in this chapter. For some, it may be brand new. Whether you are an international student in Canada, a domestic student, or an Indigenous student, it is important to educate or remind ourselves of the difficult history experienced by Indigenous peoples in Canada, because it has led to the current employment context today. This chapter aims to describe the Canadian employment context as it relates to the Truth and Reconciliation (TRC) Commission Calls to Action (CTA), specifically #92 which can be summarized by calling for reconciliation in the workplace, including improved intercultural skills for employees and administration.

Learning Objectives

After carefully reading this chapter, completing the activities and reflections within it, and answering the questions at the end, you should be able to:

  • Complete a holistic self-assessment to inventory your unique characteristics that will benefit an employer, using a strengths-based approach to job searching and career planning.
  • Translate skills and competencies that have been developed within Indigenous community-based roles into skills recognized by the employment sector.
  • Identify and describe how your social location might influence your employment options in Canada.
  • Locate and list government policies, initiatives, and institutions that have historically and currently oppressed Indigenous Peoples, resulting in the current employment context in Canada.
  • Describe the impact colonialism has had on Indigenous communities, and detail how that has caused a lower representation of and/or increased barriers for Indigenous Peoples in various employment sectors.
  • Explain the significance of rights-based documents, such as the TRC Calls to Action or UNDRIP, and articulate the impact that adopting these principles has in an employment context or potential workplace environment.
  • Evaluate an organization’s equity and inclusion policies to understand if an organization is a right fit for you.
  • Create a plan, and include resources to advocate for yourself in an employment or volunteering context.
  • Develop several strategies to support reconciliation within a prospective workplace.

A long history of colonialism, genocide, and racism has led to inequities in many areas of life for Indigenous Peoples living in Canada. The term “Indigenous” is an overarching term that refers to the three legally recognized groups who lived in Canada before it was colonized by settlers. These three groups are First Nations, Inuit, and Métis, and they are legally recognized as “Aboriginal” in Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.

Table 11.1 Who Are the Indigenous Peoples of Canada?

Indigenous Peoples make up 4.9% of the total Canadian population (Statistics Canada, 2018). Indigenous is the umbrella term to refer to the following three groups:

Indigenous group Definition
First Nations A diverse group of Indigenous Peoples who are not Inuit or Métis and who live in cities, towns, and First Nations communities across Canada.
Inuit Indigenous Peoples who traditionally have lived in Inuit Nunangat, which is composed of land, water, and ice in the Arctic region, including the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (in the Northern Yukon and the Northwestern parts of Northwest Territories), Nunavut, Nunavik (in Northern Québec), and Nunatsiavut (in Northern Labrador).
Métis People descended from Indigenous and European Ancestors during the fur trade, who self-identify as Métis, can trace their roots to the ancestral Metis homeland, are accepted by the Métis Nation.

Current State of Employment for Indigenous Canadians

Indigenous Peoples are the fastest-growing segment of the population, and those aged 25 to 39 will be a significant percentage of the workforce in the coming years (see Figure 11.1). Statistics Canada reported 46.2% of the Indigenous population was younger than 24 years old, compared to only 30% of the non-Indigenous population (Statistics Canada, 2012). That number hasn’t changed much since then. In 2020, 44% of those identifying as Indigenous were younger than 25 (Statistics Canada, 2020). Yet, according to a report by Catalyst (Thorpe-Moscon et al., 2021), Indigenous Peoples are underrepresented in the employment sector, impacted by a wage gap (OECD, 2018; Thorpe-Moscon et al., 2021), and may experience isolation due to a lack of Indigenous role models in organizations (Thorpe-Moscon et al., 2021). Using data from the 2016 Census, Statistics Canada reported that the unemployment rate for the Indigenous population was 7%: slightly more for men, and slightly less for women (Statistics Canada, 2017).

Indigenous employees are under-represented in many fields, including finance, consulting, law (Deschamps, 2021), banking, and financial institutions (CHRC, 2020). The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) observed that disparities in education and skills were closely tied to these employment outcomes (TRC, 2015b). Educational attainment and employment rates are positively correlated; those with the lowest levels of educational attainment will also experience the lowest levels of employment rates (OECD, 2018). This provides an opportunity for those engaged in post-secondary education. Yet, in her dissertation, Overmars (2019) indicates that looking only at educational attainment is an oversimplification, emphasizing the role that colonization has had in cause lower rates of employment participation. The researcher also cites a lack of culturally appropriate workplaces and values misalignment, which may contribute to lower rates of employment or employee well-being (Overmars, 2019). For more information on demographics and statistics, visit Statistics Canada. The graph in Figure 11.1 from Statistics Canada (2021) illustrates the high percentage of Indigenous youth compared to non-Indigenous Canadians.

Figure 11.1 

Identity of Population by Indigenous identity and age

Proportion of population aged 15-24 by Indigenous identity in Canada
Note: Proportion of population aged 15–24 by Indigenous identity in Canada (Anderson, 2021). Statistics Canada Open Licence Agreement. Figure 11.1 Long Description 

Indigenous Skills and Employment Training (ISET) (https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/indigenous-skills-employment-training.htm) is an initiative by the federal government in partnership with Indigenous organizations. This program aims to close the gap in educational and employment outcomes. ISET increases access to post-secondary education for Indigenous Peoples and supports those seeking employment and career pathways for Indigenous workers. The program offers “job-finding skills and training, wage subsidies to encourage employers to hire Indigenous workers, financial subsidies to help individuals access employment or obtain skills for employment, entrepreneurial skills development supports to help with returning to school, and childcare for parents in training” (ESDC, 2017).

In fact, 60% of Indigenous employees surveyed in Canada described feeling emotionally unsafe at work (Deschamps, 2021). Your colleagues, even in mainstream organizations, may not understand the history, cultures, or burdens that Indigenous Peoples carry (Julien et al., 2017), and this can lead to microaggressions, myths, and misconceptions about Indigenous Peoples (Deloitte, 2012). For example, Indigenous individuals are often questioned about the notion that they do not pay income taxes (Joseph, 2018). However, Section 87 of the Indian Act (1985) states that the “personal property of an Indian or a band situated on a reserve” is tax-exempt, as is income earned from employment on a reserve. The majority of Indigenous workers live or work off-reserve, and pay the same taxes as other Canadians. Inuit and Métis people are not eligible for this exemption, as they generally do not live on reserves (Joseph, 2018).

A particularly good resource to counter common myths is Bob Joseph’s (2021) free e-book Dispelling Common Myths About Indigenous Peoples: 9 Myths and Realities. You can read more about this at the Indigenous Corporate Training website, and the Working Effectively with Indigenous Peoples blog in the post Insight on 10 Myths about Indigenous Peoples (Joseph, 2018).

For our purposes, this chapter focuses on what actions colleagues can take to become allies in an employment context. Regardless of your level of understanding of the differences in worldviews and cultures of Indigenous Peoples, reflecting upon your biases and assumptions is an excellent starting place in terms of understanding unexamined beliefs about Indigenous cultures. Taking steps to understand Indigenous values, and specifically, the values of your Indigenous colleagues is important.

Several online courses support professional development and provide an increased understanding of the various and different worldviews of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Two robust resources are the following online courses (MOOCs) developed and delivered by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the University of Alberta (UofA). Unless you desire a certificate of completion, both are free. They are self-paced asynchronous modules, so you can learn at your own pace.

Education and competency training can build understanding, relationships, and foster work environments that support Indigenous employees’ sense of belonging, and contribute to their ability to thrive in the workplace. Make it a priority to learn about local Indigenous cultures where you live and work. Acknowledge the diversity among First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples, and learn about your colleagues. Look for ways to learn about Indigenous values, and specifically seek out information about the values of communities in your area. For example, at Thompson Rivers University, many students are Secwépemc and from the communities around Secwepemc’uluw. Understand that Indigenous Peoples are not a homogeneous group, despite the fact that many Indigenous cultures share values and belief systems.

Exercise 11.1: Locate the Traditional Indigenous Territory Where You Live or Work

Do research to find out more about the Indigenous Peoples whose land you work or live on. The following maps can be used to locate the territory you are on and learn more about treaties, treaty work in progress, and languages spoken in each area.

  • First Peoples’ Map of BC (First Peoples Cultural Council, n.d.)
  • BC Treaty Commission interactive map (n.d.) — offers more about the status of treaty negotiations.
  • Native Land (Native Land Digital, n.d.) interactive map — can be used to search and filter by treaty, language, and ancestral territory from a global perspective.

Next, you can use your research to answer the following questions:


Further Reading

To learn more about Indigenous cultures in Canada, explore the following resources (see Appendix N: Resources to Increase Your Knowledge About Indigenous Peoples):

Economic Stability

Social Determinants of Health

Variations among population groups are referred to as the “social gradient,” which refers to the concept that there is a disparity between health outcomes depending on income levels. As a historically disadvantaged group, Indigenous Peoples have experienced lower rates of education and skills. They have significant labour market disadvantages compared to the rest of Canadians due to historical and current oppressive laws and policies of the Canadian government. Because of the importance of economic stability, employment is key to self-development and long-term quality of life across the lifespan. Economic stability — including all three of the following related items: income and income distribution, unemployment and job security, and employment and working conditions — is a major social determinant of health (SDH) (Commission on Social Determinants of Health, 2008; Mikkonen & Raphael, 2010). As such, securing and sustaining employment is important to numerous social and economic goals.

Economic well-being does not exclusively hinge on having a job, but aligning your values and goals is an important exercise in ensuring you are engaging in meaningful work that gives you purpose, quality of life, and access to other social determinants of health. Employment is clearly important, particularly in the Canadian labour market which is characterized by a pool of low-wage, precarious employment (Jackson, 2005).

Barriers and Obstacles to Employment

A number of barriers disproportionately impact Indigenous Peoples in accessing stable employment and economic stability. Many of these obstacles are rooted in historical racism and have resulted in existing societal circumstances which prevent equitable access to economic stability. Eight barriers are listed by Bob Joseph (2019) in the Working Effectively with Indigenous Peoples blog post: 8 Basic Barriers to Indigenous Employment. These same barriers existed twenty years ago and have not significantly changed. Many government assimilation laws and policies — such as the residential school system, Sixties Scoop, and Indian Act policies — created conditions in which intergenerational trauma combined with discriminatory practices and laws. This caused a lack of access to standard services that the average Canadian has access to. For example, poverty, poor health, and lower-than-average education levels have resulted from these systems. We must also include the lack of clean drinking water and less access to completing high school education in remote locations. Other barriers and obstacles to employment for Indigenous Peoples include:

  • Poverty and poor housing
  • Literacy and education
  • Cultural differences
  • Racism, discrimination and stereotypes
  • Self-esteem
  • Driving licences
  • Transportation
  • Child care

Because higher levels of numeracy and literacy have been correlated with increased labour force participation (Arriagado & Hango, 2016), it is important to create opportunities to increase these levels for Indigenous Peoples. For the many reasons listed above, literacy and numeracy levels have been historically lower for Indigenous Peoples than for the general population of Canada. Because of the documented lower educational levels, Indigenous Peoples may be impacted negatively, and they may be more vulnerable to shifts in the economy. Cultural differences between employers and colleagues can influence the extent to which mutual respectful relationships are built, which is integral for a safe workplace environment. Similarly, racism, discrimination, stereotypes, and bias all influence our worldviews and how we view our colleagues.

Everyone has biases; however, by reflecting upon our worldviews and biases, we can avoid microaggressions that occur when we are uninformed about our various colleagues’ backgrounds. A microaggression is defined by Merriam-Webster (n.d.) dictionary as “a comment or action that subtly and often unconsciously or unintentionally expresses a prejudiced attitude toward a member of a marginalized group (such as a racial minority).” The comment or action usually creates discomfort in others. For example, if you learned that someone is Indigenous and blurted out “But you don’t look Indigenous!”, this statement may create discomfort.

Our cultural worldviews impact how we see others. There are a few examples in the Merriam-Webster (n.d.) definition of microaggression, and you can locate more examples in the article What Exactly is a Microaggression? by Experience More Access chapter in this textbook goes into more detail on social location, bias, and microaggressions — if you have not read this section, it is worth going back to. It is important to remain open and curious, and to actively work against our own personal biases that have been reinforced by society, community, or family norms. This supports personal growth and development toward building healthy interpersonal relationships in the workplace. Challenging our own assumptions often requires reflection and facilitation. There are many ways to improve our education in this area. Some resources for education from an Indigenous lens can be found through workplace training or online modules in equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) by Indigenous Canada (UofA, 2014), workplace or private EDI workshops, other employment modules and diversity workshops, and resources such as Indigenous Corporate Training Inc. (https://www.ictinc.ca/).

Various myths are perpetuated about the perceived benefits that Indigenous Peoples are entitled to in Canada. One particular myth that continues is that Indigenous Peoples are perceived as having special treatment. While this is not true, in the current employment context there are numerous Indigenous employment pathways that have developed as a result of the TRC Calls to Action (2015a) report, with organizations specifically seeking Indigenous applicants. Recently, a shift towards EDI has resulted in interest and a legal requirement to diversify the employment sector. In fact, there is sufficient evidence to support the notion that diversity in all areas of decision-making results in more equitable policies (Rao & Tilt, 2016) for Canadians. Ensure that you self-identify in support of any application, even if not specifically as Indigenous, and view yourself from a strengths-based place, because your voice and perspectives are important and highly sought after in many sectors. Healthy self-esteem is a key factor in presenting oneself well in interviews.

It is important to note that Indigenous Peoples often feel that they need to leave their Indigenous identity and culture at the door when entering and engaging in non-Indigenous spaces. Corporate culture is definitely a specific environment requiring various communication skills and styles. It can be helpful to develop the skill set required for communicating in the workplace and recognizing the dominant corporate culture. For example, is it relaxed, or formal? What types of communication do employees use? For those of us who are new to a certain sector or workplace, it can feel like we are taking on a different identity. This is common, and it may be that you have various identities — a professional identity that you switch to at work, and various other social identities that you switch to for connecting with friends or family. People refer to this as code-switching. Indigenous peoples may be impacted by this more than non-Indigenous employees, due to the fact that the worldviews we espouse can be very different than colleagues or the organization itself. The ability to navigate various cultures is an advantage and may allow you to bring your Indigenous or your unique cultural perspective to your chosen organization. For example, adjusting how we communicate in the workplace can be helpful for meetings, championing ideas, and promoting oneself. That said, employers are advised to create new spaces and processes in the workplace culture that are inclusive, so that other perspectives are more easily recognized without employees being required to adjust to workplace culture.

For this reason, many Indigenous Peoples — whether students or employees — may develop multiple ways of communicating, depending on what context they find themselves in. In one environment, we may communicate in ways that are culturally grounded, but in non-Indigenous spaces, we may develop an identity that is more congruent with the implicit or explicit values of the non-Indigenous space. The term code-switching is often used to describe the ways in which individuals adapt ways of relating and communicating with others in various and different spaces such as school, community, family, employment contexts, and social spaces. Code-switching can be cognitively tiring. It can be mentally taxing to continually change your communication style to adapt to cultural contexts that differ from your culture of origin. This is common among Black, Indigenous, and people-of-colour (BIPOC) individuals. It is worth reflecting upon communication styles, considering this as a factor in decision-making regarding where you see yourself working. Various communication styles are often required but are not always explicitly described by organizations. Adapting to a corporate culture may require an employee to adopt specific ways of communicating that are recognized in the organization, but may be different than what we are used to using in other environments.

Some challenges Indigenous Peoples face in terms of employment include issues of isolation, especially those who transition from remote areas and have to become accustomed to a new city or urban culture. Additional challenges include developing ways to adapt to new cultural norms, such as workplace culture, and navigating institutions that are predominantly based on Western values. A lack of role models in senior positions can contribute to low retention and recruitment. As Deloitte (2012) reported, retention is impacted by the lack of familiar faces. Not seeing ourselves in the company impacts our sense of belonging. One way to support employees who find themselves in this situation is to develop mentorship programs and create support systems for Indigenous employees.

Not possessing a driver’s license can also be a barrier to employment opportunities. It is often a requirement of employment, and the ability to drive can be necessary to transport you to an interview, your workplace, or to testing centres, which are often part of an application process depending on the type of employment you are looking for. Remote communities seldom have reliable public transportation, and it can be difficult to find an automobile in remote communities to learn how to drive or to take the license road test. The high cost of insurance for younger people, who are just starting out, is another barrier.

Lastly, reliable, safe childcare in BC is costly and challenging to find. There are often long waitlists for out-of-home childcare in urban centres, which can disadvantage women disproportionately, creating even more obstacles to entering the workplace.

Further Reading: Barriers and Obstacles for Employment

Rights and Responsibilities Frameworks

Truth and Reconciliation: Calls to Action (CTA)

In 2015, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission recommended a series of 94 Calls to Action (Reconciliation Education, n.d.) that outlined various actions by a number of sectors to support, foster, and develop reconciliatory action that would transform institutions and systems for Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Everything from education, sports, employment, and more was tasked with action.

Specifically, CTA [#]92 called for the “corporate sector in Canada to adopt the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as a reconciliation framework, and to apply its principles, norms, and standards to corporate policy and core operational activities involving Indigenous peoples and their lands and resources” (TRC, 2015a). In fact, it was not until 2019 that BC adopted UNDRIP.

In terms of employment and career planning, CTA 92ii and 92iii are particularly important to explore. The TRC uses wording that welcomes expansive action on the part of employers and individuals. CTA 92ii mandates that employers ensure that Indigenous Peoples have “equitable access to jobs, training, and education opportunities in the corporate sector” (TRC, 2015). The second aspect of CTA 92ii calls for communities to gain long-term sustainable benefits from economic development projects, which also has an impact on potential employment for Indigenous community members.

TRC Call to Action 92: Business and Reconciliation

We call upon the corporate sector in Canada to adopt the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as a reconciliation framework and to apply its principles, norms, and standards to corporate policy and core operational activities involving Indigenous peoples and their lands and resources. This would include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • 92 i: Commit to meaningful consultation, building respectful relationships, and obtaining the free, prior, and informed consent of Indigenous peoples before proceeding with economic development projects.
  • 92 ii: Ensure that Aboriginal peoples have equitable access to jobs, training, and education opportunities in the corporate sector and that Aboriginal communities gain long-term sustainable benefits from economic development projects.
  • 92 iii: Provide education for management and staff on the history of Aboriginal peoples, including the history and legacy of residential schools, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Treaties and Aboriginal rights, Indigenous law, and Aboriginal–Crown relations. This will require skills-based training in intercultural competency, conflict resolution, human rights, and anti-racism (TRC, 2015a).

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

The second framework, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples UNDRIP (United Nations, 2007), was only recently adopted in BC. UNDRIP was adopted by the UN General Assembly on September 13, 2007. It was only in 2019 that Canada officially supported UNDRIP, having voted against it in 2007. It is a framework that asserts that Indigenous peoples should be free from discrimination. It can be summarized as a mechanism to protect Indigenous peoples’ rights to cultural integrity, education, health, and political participation. UNDRIP also provides for the recognition of Indigenous peoples’ rights to their lands and natural resources and the observation of their treaty rights.

This has significant implications for employment rights and, along with the TRC Calls to Action, has influenced organizations to create more Indigenous recruitment programs and focus on diversifying their organizations. UNDRIP Article 17 (part 1 and 3) and Article 21 refer to economic protections and employment. Explore Article 17 (1 and 3), which asserts the rights of Indigenous Peoples in the area of labour law and establishes the right to not be discriminated against.

UNDRIP Article 17

  • Article 17-1. Indigenous individuals and peoples have the right to enjoy fully all rights established under applicable international and domestic labour law.
  • Article 17-3. Indigenous individuals have the right not to be subjected to any discriminatory conditions of labour and, inter alia, employment or salary (United Nations, 2007).

Parts 1 and 3 of Article 17 mean that the rights of Indigenous peoples are protected, and they should be able to enjoy a harassment-free environment at work. It also means that you cannot be refused employment or be discriminated against based on cultural background. If you find that this is the case, steps to rectify the discrimination would be to consult your university Co-op Coordinator (if you are a co-op student) and/or your human resources advisor at the organization.

The Labour Program: Changes to the Canada Labour Code (ESDC, 2021) lists recent improvements to employee rights. It’s a good resource to review, whether you are just entering the workforce or if you’ve already been a part of the workforce, because it details your rights and entitlements. For example, did you know Indigenous employees are entitled to five days off for cultural practices?

This brings us to a discussion about UNDRIP Article 21, which details provisions for economic conditions and areas regarding employment and training, as well as particular attention to those who are historically marginalized: women, Elders, youth, children, and those with disabilities.

UNDRIP Article 21

  • Indigenous peoples have the right, without discrimination, to the improvement of their economic and social conditions [emphasis added], including, inter alia, in the areas of education, employment, vocational training and retraining [emphasis added], housing, sanitation, health and social security.
  • States shall take effective measures and, where appropriate, special measures to ensure continuing improvement of their economic and social conditions [emphasis added]. Particular attention shall be paid to the rights and special needs of Indigenous elders, women, youth, children and persons with disabilities (United Nations, 2007).

Article 21 speaks to the fact that the government has a commitment to supporting Indigenous individuals to improve their economic conditions, including employment, and it codifies taking special measures for continuous improvement. The result of this mandate is increasing opportunities for Indigenous peoples in employment, in which organizations are answering the call to increase diversity. Yet, despite adopting UNDRIP, it still has no legal authority in Canada.

The following timeline is not an exhaustive list of events, but it identifies key events in the Indigenous rights framework. See Appendix O: Indigenous Rights Based Framework Timeline for a long description of this timeline.


What Does This Mean for Indigenous Canadians Seeking Employment?

As a result of the TRC, many organizations have increased their attention to developing recruitment strategies designed to employ Indigenous Canadians, with a goal to diversify their workplace in the hope of closing the gap that exists between non-Indigenous and Indigenous Canadians regarding employment statistics. This can result in increased opportunities for Indigenous employment candidates.

TRC Call to Action 92iii

Provide education for management and staff on the history of Aboriginal peoples, including the history and legacy of residential schools, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Treaties and Aboriginal rights, Indigenous law, and Aboriginal–Crown relations. This will require skills-based training in intercultural competency, conflict resolution, human rights, and anti-racism (TRC, 2015a).

As Canadians become aware of the history and legacy of cultural oppression, genocide, and the resulting lack of access to education and employment opportunities for Indigenous Canadians, employers have been urged to take action to close this gap in employment between non-Indigenous and Indigenous Canadians. CTA 92ii is integral to educating employers and supporting leaders and management with intercultural training, human rights awareness, anti-racism, and implicit bias training that may improve hiring practices. This training is key to increasing Indigenous employment, improving diversity in the workplace, and creating safer employment spaces for Indigenous Canadians.

Exercise 11.2: Reflect on the Implications of TRC’s Calls to Action

Take a look at the TRC Calls to Action (2015a) report, and locate the specific CTA(s) for the sector in which you plan to work. Reflect on the following questions:

  • What do the CTAs mean for you in the workplace, and what do they mean for the organization?
  • Is there evidence of action on the organization’s website?
  • Does the organization have evidence of professional development or educational opportunities for its employees?
  • What are some reconciliatory actions you can do to support diversity in the workplace?

Further Reading: Rights and Responsibilities Frameworks

Indigenous Perspectives

Holistic Assessment

Ensure that you assess a potential employer and make informed decisions in your employment search. Indigenous peoples across Canada share similar values, despite the richness and differences in cultures. The four dimensions (spiritual, mental, physical, emotional) are aspects of every person’s nature, and they can be used to frame all aspects of our lives. Indigenous peoples believe that wholeness and balance are important and result when a person has all four of these dimensions in balance. Imbalances in any area result in disharmony. Different groups interpret the circle differently, but in summary: each of the four directions or dimensions (east, south, west, and north) typically represent an organizing framework and a worldview summarized by balance. The circle can be used to align and frame all aspects of life. Employment decisions are no different than any other. Efforts and energy should be taken to align your values with an organization.

Figure 11.2 Circle of Four Dimensions for Career Decision-Making

Guiding Circles Diagram
Guiding Circles Career Decision Making by Rod McCormick, Norm Amunsdon, Gray Poehnell ©Indigenous Works. Used with permission.

Figure 11.2 is just one of the circle diagrams representing part of a much more involved Indigenous values-based career decision-making process designed by Rod McCormick, Norm Amundsen, and Gray Poehnell (2002) in their workbook and workshops Guiding circles: An Aboriginal guide to finding career paths. Booklet 1: Understanding yourself. Aboriginal Human Resource Development Council of Canada. The Guiding Circles program can now be found at IndigenousWorks, previously known as the Aboriginal Human Resources Council, developed in response to the 1996 Report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) to improve Indigenous inclusion in employment.

For our purposes, I chose this circle to support you in identifying and evaluating your activities in various aspects of your life, academic, career, volunteer, or personal. You can use the circle to evaluate your current activities, follow Exercise 11.3, or a combination of both using the circle with four dimensions as a framework. It can be redrawn on a blank sheet of paper, and re-used anytime you need to re-visit or guide your process.

This is a good time to perform a self-assessment if you have not done so already. You might have already read the Self Assessment chapter in this textbook and performed the self-assessment. Go back and do a self-inventory again using the Holland Code (RIASEC) Test (https://openpsychometrics.org/tests/RIASEC/) from the Open-Source Psychometric Project (2019). After doing this self-assessment, compare your results and place them into the four dimensions in the graphic to ensure that your decisions will result in the balance you are seeking. You can do this to determine if an employer’s values align with your own interests, goals, and values.

Exercise 11.3: Using the Four Dimensions to Guide Your Career and Job Search

Use Figure 11.2 to assess your career goals and determine if a workplace is a good fit.

Write aspects of the potential position you are considering, and place them in the quadrants that they align with. Jot what you know down. Do some research on the company’s website, ask peers or colleagues about a potential organization, or record what you have discovered from a job interview.

  • Are the company’s values evident?
  • What is the company’s culture?
  • What is important to the company?
  • Is there a company mandate?
  • Does the website describe EDI policy, training, or priorities?
  • Is family important to the organization?

Next, write about your values. By now you will have listed those, and done some reflection on what is important to you. Jot these down in the various areas in the circle that match. And list the characteristics you are aware of in the organization or career you are considering.

  • Is one part of the circle too heavy with content?

This is exploratory, so take some time and fill this out for each employer. You may not be able to figure this out until you are in your first work term, but that is what co-op is for: to determine from experience what you want to do.

Family Responsibilities

Indigenous individuals commit more hours per week to household and caring tasks than do non-Indigenous Canadians. For example, in 2001, 25% of working-age Indigenous respondents spent more than 30 hours per week involved in housework, compared to 16% of non-Indigenous respondents (Ciceri & Scott, 2006?). The percentage of Indigenous women working more than 30 hours a week on household tasks was higher than the percentage of Indigenous men (33% compared to 16%) (Ciceri & Scott, 2006). Even so, Indigenous men were twice as likely as non-Indigenous men to be in this group.

Similarly, Indigenous people were almost twice as likely as non-Indigenous to report that they spent more than 30 hours per week caring for children (28% compared to 16%). And again, this was true for both Indigenous men and women. By contrast, over half of the non-Indigenous working-age population (53%) reported that they did not spend any time caring for children, compared to 43% of the Indigenous population. This may be linked to the higher birth rate, as noted in Current State of Employment for Indigenous Canadians, as well as the higher proportion of lone-parent families within the Indigenous community. Additionally, working-age adults in the Indigenous community are more likely to provide more than 10 hours per week of care to an Elder (Ciceri & Scott, 2006).

But what do all these statistics mean, and how are they related to employment? Basically, family responsibilities fall largely upon Indigenous women, which is a disadvantage in terms of employment opportunities. Reliable and safe childcare, along with a position that earns a sufficient income to also pay for childcare, are integral to enabling Indigenous women to work. This may be a good point to discuss the ways in which identities are intersectional, and how that intersectionality impacts our earning potential.

Social Location and Intersectionality

Privilege offers an easier path through the world, and this is not often recognized by those who possess the most privilege. Social location can be defined as the combination of factors that impact our experiences within society including gender, race, social class, age, ability, religion, sexual orientation, and geographic location, resulting in our social location being specific to us as individuals (NCFR, 2019). To learn more and identify your own social location, explore the Experience More Access chapter. Social Location contains a description of social location and how several intersecting identities, such as gender, income status, partner status, family origin, religion, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation, impact us differently. Have a look at Figure 10.8 in the Experience More Access chapter for an illustration of how intersecting identities can impact us differently. Go back to the 35 questions in Exercise 10.2 in Experience More Access. This activity is relevant to those who identify as Indigenous, female, or any number of identities that locate us outside the dominant group, which is mainly comprised of individuals who are White and male. Watch the video, What Is Privilege? (As/Is, 2015) to get a sense of how the identity exercise plays out in person.

Exercise 11.4: Identify Your Social Location

Take the quiz called What is Privilege? located in the Experience More Access chapter, and watch the What Is Privilege? (As/Is, 2015) video above to put your results into context. These questions will help you better understand your social location by illustrating your areas of advantage (i.e., your privilege) and disadvantage in society.

Now reflect on what you learned about your identity with these questions:

  • Were you surprised?
  • Does your understanding of your social location change anything?
  • How does your identity relate to the Canadian employment context?
  • Does this change your views of employment equity?
  • How does this new knowledge support you to navigate the job search process?

Cultural Humility

Self-promotion is not a common characteristic among Indigenous cultures (Deloitte, 2012) or in various other cultural backgrounds. Yet, describing oneself in what may seem like boastful ways is normalized in North America. It can be uncomfortable for some people to describe themselves and list their qualities in the way that job-seekers are counseled, and you may need to teach yourself the skill. 

Indigenous employees may grapple with different cultural definitions of success, and the cultural bias toward humility instead of “selling yourself” (Deloitte, 2012). Presenting yourself in resumes and cover letters can feel uncomfortable at first. Learning new cultural skills is challenging, but it can be helpful in terms of finding meaningful employment. Consider how members of your family, community members, and relations would talk about you, and challenge yourself to learn to market your unique and valuable characteristics by putting your best foot forward in a way that employers recognize. You can refer to the strengths finder in the Self-Assessment chapter if you want to go through a reflective exercise to brainstorm your strengths.

Exercise 11.5: Describe Your Strengths Through a Family Member’s Eyes

Brainstorm! List your skills and competencies. Do not edit the list while you write. You can always edit later, but for now, jot down all the strengths and skills that you recognize, or that a family member would say about you. Use a paper and pen, or open a Word document and type it out. Practice bragging!

Racism and Implicit Bias

Indigenous students are not always in culturally-safe spaces on campus. The concept of cultural safety (Cull et al., 2018) recognizes that we need to be aware of and challenge unequal power relations at all levels: individual, family, community, and society. The reality is that many Indigenous students experience racial microaggressions (Cull et al., 2018) daily, and this ongoing harm creates feelings of isolation and not being welcome. A racial microaggression is a “subtle behaviour that [conveys] hostile, derogatory, or negative messages to persons of marginalized groups” (Shotton, 2017, p. 33).

A Catalyst survey (Thorpe-Moscon et al., 2019) defines the concept of an “emotional tax,” as an extra psychological burden at work. This emotional tax, and the low levels of psychological safety that Indigenous Peoples experience, are not shared by mainstream or non-marginalized employees. In more detail, emotional tax is “the combination of feeling different from peers at work because of gender, race, and/or ethnicity, being on guard to experiences of bias” and it is linked to employee retention and health and wellbeing.

According to a recent article, Indigenous workers describe feeling “on guard” and that they have to follow a higher code of conduct than their non-Indigenous peers (Deschamps, 2021). They may take special care not to reinforce stereotypes about Indigenous peoples; for example, they may feel added pressure to always show up on time, never over-drink at work functions, and present as “agreeable” so as not to appear “angry” (Deschamps, 2021). These behaviours are ways that Indigenous employees protect themselves from bias and discrimination because they do not have the same privilege as their non-Indigenous peers. Feeling on guard or unsafe has ramifications for diversity in the workplace.

Because a large proportion (60%) of Indigenous workers feel unsafe on the job (Deschamps, 2021), their overall sense of belonging is impacted. This influences the way these workers navigate employment and career choices. It may influence how many Indigenous individuals seek to work in their home communities where they have connections, support, and resources.

The Indigenous artist Jarrid Poitras outlines ways in which comments made in the workplace impact Indigenous peoples, and how complicated it is to advocate for yourself. You can read more about Jarrid Poitras’s story in the CBC News article ‘Pawn it’ Comment Prompts Indigenous Artist to Call out Discrimination in Sask. Country Music Industry (Latimer, 2021).

Unfortunately, Indigenous women are impacted by this disproportionately — 67% of Indigenous women, as opposed to 38% of men, admitted to feeling “on guard” (Deschamps, 2021) — and this lack of comfort leads to reduced progression, inability to voice their opinions, and to ignore microaggressions or colleague’s unconscious biases out of fear of not being amenable to corporate culture (Deschamps, 2021). The high percentage of Indigenous workers who feel unsafe in the workplace has implications for company leadership. Leaders must provide a safe and welcoming space for Indigenous employees to be themselves. Indigenous workers should not feel penalized for raising concerns or challenges. They should feel their Indigeneity is accepted, rather than having to educate colleagues or the company. Determining whether an employer has a solid reconciliation or decolonization initiative is a good sign that there is progress in that particular workplace.

Finding Support

Many organizations are realizing the need for support, and they are adapting their practices to include cultural awareness or sensitivity training for employees at all levels (Deloitte, 2012). Take advantage of these workshops and professional development, so you can develop cultural sensitivity and improve your allyship with Indigenous colleagues. While organizations are improving their practices and policies, looking for support and mentorship is important. For example, Krystal Abotossaway, TD Bank Group’s Senior Manager of Diversity and Inclusion, indicates that “being able to draw on the organization’s network and connect with people who have faced challenges like hers has helped her professionally, where she finds the need to be ‘on guard’ has been melting away” (Deschamps, 2021).

Indigenous employees in mainstream workplaces often feel burdened, and they experience challenges that adversely influence their cultural safety and well-being. The concept of “working in two worlds” might be new to many cross-sector agencies, but for Indigenous employees, it can be a barrier to career satisfaction and progression. Often Indigenous peoples are asked to educate their colleagues or be the go-to person for bringing cultural awareness to a team or department. Suggestions are for organizations to maintain their own resources and ensure they are providing professional development for staff, so the onus for this development is not on Indigenous employees. Deloitte (2012) reported that Indigenous employees remarked on how “exhausting” it is to constantly be providing this cultural education. If you find that is occurring in your workplace, you can always suggest that your colleagues or workplace engage in external training. Some of those courses and resources are found in Appendix N: Resources To Increase Your Knowledge About Indigenous Peoples.

Cultural sensitivity education and knowledge about the history of Indigenous peoples in Canada can support non-Indigenous employees to be better allies to our Indigenous colleagues without putting the burden of education on them. Additionally, non-Indigenous employees can support Indigenous colleagues by advocating and supporting a colleague if they find themselves witnessing an instance of cultural bias, derogatory comment, or racism in the workplace. As a victim or target of racism or cultural bias, it is difficult to advocate for oneself. If a non-Indigenous colleague notices this behaviour and calls it out, it can be more effective and create an increasingly safe environment for those impacted by these incidents. If you have more privilege or psychological safety than others, it is important that you use your voice as an ally. The lack of psychological safety inhibits the career progress made by Indigenous employees, and it can limit the potential of the organization (Deschamps, 2021). High psychological safety is associated with many positive outcomes, both for Indigenous employees and their companies (Deschamps, 2021). Previous research indicates that the “emotional tax” may be diminished when leaders create an empowering work environment so that BIPOC employees have the autonomy, resources, and support they need to succeed (Thorpe-Mascon et al., 2019).

Allyship Strategies for your Workplace

  • Build relationships with Indigenous colleagues.
  • Call out racist or biased comments.
  • Demonstrate inclusivity.
  • Create more space for Indigenous voices by encouraging everyone to be heard, especially in meetings.
  • Champion your colleagues’ ideas and creativity.
  • Educate yourself on the history of racism and oppression in Canada. Do not ask your colleague to educate the department or organization, unless that is their role in the company.

By modeling these behaviours, you will be signaling to other colleagues how to conduct themselves in an ethical fashion that supports reconciliation. In the Application Process section, we will discuss how to determine the fit of a potential workplace by carefully assessing the organization’s EDI plan. This is a good first step and may reduce the challenges you face with regard to racism, bias, and inclusion if there is evidence that the organization has begun to do some of this work. The following table (Thorpe-Moscon et al., 2019). organizes various actions that can support reconciliation efforts, either as a non-Indigenous ally or as an Indigenous person. Most of the actions are directed at managers and those who supervise employees. However, this infographic is helpful for outlining various collegial strategies that can be used across many positions in the organization, all the way from leadership positions to peers.

Figure 11.3

Strategies to support Indigenous colleagues in the workplace

Strategies to support Indigenous colleagues in the workplace
(Thorpe-Moscon & Ohm, 2021, p. 8) Figure 11.3 Long Description

Exercise 11.6: Reflection: How Can You Support Indigenous Colleagues

Describe some of the ways that you can support an Indigenous colleague or advocate for yourself.

  • List some actions that you can perform.
  • What are some resources available to you?
  • What aspects of a workplace would encourage you to feel safe coming forward?
  • Give some thought about why you may not feel safe doing so. Link this with a recent or current experience.

Application Process

Employer Assessment

In response to TRC Calls to Action, including mandates to diversify the Canadian workforce, many employers are seeking Indigenous applicants, and a number of organizations have developed specific Indigenous recruitment strategies. These provide opportunities for Indigenous students starting out after graduation and can be great first work terms as well. It is important to evaluate these Indigenous recruitment opportunities for yourself. One way to do this is to identify the equity policies at these organizations. Look for an employer that creates an empowering workplace, displays evidence of accountability, and demonstrates a commitment to diversity, inclusion, and equity. An exemplary organization that values EDI (Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion), and seeks to diversify and celebrate the diversity of their employees will have an EDI policy or a mandate or commitment on their website. Committed organizations may also include mentorship groups for Indigenous employees, which can be a factor in supporting, and increasing a sense of belonging, for Indigenous employees, which is important to employee retention (Morris, 2017)

Researching an employer’s equity and inclusion policy, to evaluate whether the employer feels like a good fit, can support your decision-making process. Indigenous employees, and all employees, feel more psychologically safe in a workplace that values diversity and welcomes and fosters employee skills and talents (cite, date). As part of your research process, you can locate an exemplary EDI policy or find evidence of a commitment to diversity, either posted on their website, or through your networks. Describe the values that are stated within the policy, and how those motivate you to work for the organization. Evidence of this is when managers put these policies into practice by developing teams in which Indigenous employees are heard, recognized, valued, and challenged with meaningful work (Catalyst, n.d.).

There are many mentorship and leadership development opportunities with organizations and companies that have already implemented these practices. As mentioned before, mentorship and opportunities to build connections with other Indigenous people in the organization are important supports to look for in a potential workplace (Deloitte, n.d.). For example, the Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) has a number of Indigenous recruitment programs (https://jobs.rbc.com/ca/en/IndigenousPeoples) and student training and mentorship opportunities. RBC is an organization that not only hires Indigenous interns, but also has a post-graduate Internship program that is supported by a group of Indigenous advisors, mentors, or Elders. The organization maintains a group of Indigenous mentors who are available to support new and existing employees, culturally and professionally. Explore those organizations that interest you, in your sector, and ensure that you are highlighting your Indigenous identity to be considered for these positions.

Exercise 11.7: Assessing an Organization’s EDI Policy

  • Research a few employers to assess their EDI, inclusion, or diversity commitment.
  • Locate an exemplary EDI policy, diversity mandate, or statement of inclusion.
  • Take a look at those employer websites that you have identified as places you want to work.
  • Summarize the policies that you find, and reflect upon how the policy creates more safety and space for Indigenous employees.
  • Take note of any Indigenous recruitment programs and the supports that are described. You may find this information on the internet, and you may also have heard about an organization’s reputation in this area through your networks.
  • Describe any details you discover that encourage you to feel that your Indigeneity will be supported.


Ensure that you find a way to self-identify in your application package. Even if the position you are seeking is not described as a specifically Indigenous position, resulting from TRC Calls to Action, many organizations have developed diversity and inclusion policies. What this means is that there are more Indigenous recruitment programs and organizations are striving to diversify their workforce. To self-identify, ensure that you use one of the paragraphs in your cover letter to introduce yourself including the Nation and/or community that you belong to. An additional method to reference your identity is to include any competencies and skills you have developed through volunteering, paid work, or cultural roles you have performed in your community. For example, by naming the community in which you have planned events or supported Elders, it will be evident to those reading your application that you belong to an Indigenous community. To ensure that you are considered Indigenous, using the introduction method is more direct. Knowing those diversity initiatives potentially increase the opportunities for Indigenous and BIPOC job-seekers, for many reasons, you may not want to identify yourself. Make the decision that works best for you, in your circumstances, and take the advice in this section to enable your employment search to work for you.

Examples: Cover Letter Self-Identification

Example #1: As a T’exelcemc person, I have extensive knowledge of the land.

Example #2: Because of my role as an event organizer in my community of Frog Lake, Alberta, I have developed a number of project management skills…

Exercise 11.8: Create a List of Indigenous Recruitment Programs

  • Create a list of Indigenous recruitment programs that include explicit support for Indigenous employees.
  • Royal Bank of Canada (https://jobs.rbc.com/ca/en/IndigenousPeoples) has a number of initiatives to support Indigenous graduates, from co-op opportunities, post-graduate internships, and a mentorship program called Royal Eagles, comprised of Indigenous employees. Describe how this would influence your decision to apply to these organizations.

Transferable Skills

Don’t forget to outline and detail the skills and competencies you have developed as a result of your roles in your community. Various roles such as acting as an Elder helper, having extensive knowledge of the land, medicines, or cultural knowledge, or organizing cultural and community events have been instrumental in developing certain skill sets. Ensure that you are connecting these valuable skills and responsibilities into skills that an employer recognizes. This is especially important if you are applying for a position with an employer who is seeking an Indigenous applicant or for an opportunity in a community or Indigenous organization. These competencies should be highlighted and ensured that they are front and center for an Indigenous organization. This allows you to explicitly tie the traditional skills to your identity as an Indigenous person and highlight this for an employer.

Examples: Cultural Skills

  • Community involvement = extensive network, relational skills
  • Community event planning = project management and networking skills
  • Youth/Wellness programs = team player and/or teacher/coach
  • Elder helper = emotional intelligence/wisdom

Exercise 11.9: List your Cultural Skills and Competencies

  • Identify and write down a list of cultural skills and competencies from the various community-based roles or jobs that you have held.
  • Think about how those skills are transferable to an organization you are considering.
  • In one column, include cultural skills and competencies.
  • In the second column, transfer those skills into competencies in ways that the organization will value.

Employment Trends

You can learn more about various careers from an Indigenous perspective. The Career Journeys for First Nations Role Model Program (https://vimeo.com/user7569998) was created primarily for secondary students by First Nations Schools Association (FNSA) and First Nations Education Steering Committee (FNESC). However, depending upon where you are in your journey, these videos are still great resources which include interviews with professionals in various careers, discussing many factors that contributed to their success like family support, educational requirements and how their choice of profession has enriched their lives (FNESC, n.d.).

Watch the collection of videos and meet the Career Journey Role Models in An Introduction to the Career Journeys Role Models Series, by FNESC and FNSA (n.d.; 2015) on Vimeo.


Finally, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada has identified Indigenous youth between the ages of 15 and 34 as the fastest-growing population segment in Canada (Stats Canada, 2018a). That means that our organizations are going to require your perspective and skill set in order to maintain a competitive advantage. Attracting Indigenous talent is a necessity. Catalyst described it as an imperative — not just a diversity exercise (Thorpe-Moscon & Ohm, 2021). Remember your value to the workplace, and the perspective you bring that is integral to growth in the sector you choose. As one participant in Dialogue on Diversity stated: “There are thousands of bright young people getting ready to seize opportunities. We’re not living in the 60s or 70s anymore.” (Deloitte, 2012).

Long Descriptions

Figure 11.1 Long Description

Chart 1 [Data Table]
Proportion of the population aged 15 to 24 years by Indigenous identity, Canada, 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Proportion of the population aged 15 to 24 years by Indigenous identity. The information is grouped by Indigenous identity (appearing as row headers), percent (appearing as column headers).
Indigenous identity Percent
Total Indigenous population 16.9
First Nations people 17.5
Métis 16.0
Inuit 18.4
Non-Indigenous population 12.0

From: Anderson, T. (2021), December). Chart 1 [graph]. In Chapter 4: Indigenous youth in Canada.  Portrait of youth in Canada: Data report. Statistics Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/42-28-0001/2021001/article/00004-eng.htm

Back to Figure 11.1

Figure 11.2 Long Description

A circle can be used to assess your career goals and determine if a workplace is a good fit. The circle is divided evenly into four quadrants: Mental, Spiritual, Emotional, and Physical. The circle is made of three concentric circles, with “too little” being nearest the centre, then moving out is “just enough” and the outermost circle is “too much.” A person could write aspects of the potential position they are considering, and place them in the quadrants that they align with. To further understand how to use the circle, follow Exercise 11.3.

The Circle of Four Dimensions for Career Decision-Making is from Guiding Circles Career Decision Making Diagram by Rod McCormick, Norm Amunsdon, and Gray Poehnell (2002) ©Aboriginal Human Resource Development Council of Canada (AHRDCC)

Back to Figure 11.2

Figure 11.3 Long Description

Thorpe-Moscon & Ohm (2021) identify strategies for supporting Indigenous colleagues in the workplace (p. 8). The supporting strategies, divided into three categories — empowerment, accountibility and humility — are as follows:


  • Make sure all team members have what they need to succeed and flourish at work and that they can bring their full selves to work by expressing and sharing their culture.
  • Model your own learning, vulnerabilities, and challenges related to tackling inequities and moving outside your comfort zone.
  • Gather and enact suggestions for creating a more inclusive workplace.
  • Move toward a more collective mindset where the team’s health and success are everyone’s top priority — and giving back to the community is expected.
  • Foster opportunities for building respectful, genuine, and trusting relationships among all team members.


  • Hold all team members responsible for their behaviour, development, and work processes.
  • Openly discuss how to demonstrate that a wide variety of perspectives, identities, and cultures are valued.
  • Set explicit goals for learning, collaboration, and potentially uncomfortable dialogues about colonialism, racism, sexism, and other difficult topics.
  • Ask team members and leaders how they interrupt biased behaviours and processes.
  • Incorporate accountability to the community, environment, and future generations into all decisions.


  • Challenge yourself to learn more about the historical and current experiences of Indigenous Peoples in Canada.
  • Practice humble listening by setting aside preconceived notions of how the world works, and truly hear what another person’s experience of the world is like.
  • Explore Indigenous values. One such example, of many, is the Anishinaabe People’s Seven Teachings of Love, respect, courage, honesty, humility, wisdom, and truth, which are shared by many Indigenous Peoples across the land.*
  • Learn from and with team members through conversation-sharing perspectives and challenging one another, not trying to “win.”
  • Be willing to admite your own mistakes; find grace for coworkers to make mistakes and take risks without being penalized.

*The Seven Teachings (https://www.southernnetwork.org/site/seven-teachings). Southern First Nations Network of Care; The Gifts of the Seven Grandfathers (https://ojibwe.net/projects/prayers-teachings/the-gifts-of-the-seven-grandfathers/). Ojibwe.net.

Back to Figure 11.3


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Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC). (2015a). Calls to action [pdf]. https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/british-columbians-our-governments/indigenous-people/aboriginal-peoples-documents/calls_to_action_english2.pdf

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC). (2015b). Honouring the truth, reconciling for the future: Summary of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. http://publications.gc.ca/pub?id=9.800288&sl=0

United Nations. (n.d.). United Nations permanent forum on Indigenous issues: Frequently asked questions on Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples [pdf]. https://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/faq_drips_en.pdf

United Nations. (2007, September 13). United Nations declaration on the rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) [UNGAOR, 61st Sess, UN Doc A/RES/61/295]. https://www.un.org/development/desa/indigenouspeoples/declaration-on-the-rights-of-indigenous-peoples.html

University of Alberta (UofA). (2017). Indigenous Canada [online course]. https://www.ualberta.ca/admissions-programs/online-courses/indigenous-canada/index.html

University of British Columbia (UBC). (2014). Reconciliation through Indigenous education [online course]. https://pdce.educ.ubc.ca/reconciliation/

Media Attributions

  • Table 11.1 Who Are the Indigenous Peoples of Canada?

  • Figure 11.1 Proportion of population aged 15-24 by Indigenous identity in Canada (Anderson, 2021). Statistics Canada Open Licence Agreement (https://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/reference/licence)
  • Figure 11.2 Guiding Circles Career Decision Making [Diagram] by Rod McCormick, Norm Amunsdon, Gray Poehnell ©Indigenous Works. Used with permission.
  • Figure 11.3 Strategies to support Indigenous colleagues in the workplace. (Thorpe-Moscon & Ohm, 2021). Building inclusion for Indigenous Peoples in Canadian workplaces is used under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) license.


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